In a study by Kallio and others, eight elements were compared in berries originating from different countries. Finnish species contained smaller amounts of iron, calcium, and lead but higher levels of cadmium in comparison to Chinese fruit. Glucose, fructose, and xylose are the three main sugars present in sea buckthorn berries. Total soluble sugars in the species grown in China constitute between 5.
Berries originating from China contained the highest levels of sugars, followed in decreasing order by berries from Russia and Finland [ 56 ]. Yang [ 61 ] studied sugar levels in three different subspecies Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. The combined levels of glucose and fructose varied from 0. Various levels of sugars were found in different batches. These differences can be explained by the slightly different harvest times and weather conditions in the years during which the crops were grown.
The main sugar present in sea buckthorn berries of all origins is glucose. Sea buckthorn berries possess a unique aroma, due to their content of volatile compounds. These volatile substances are mainly short chain esters, branched or n-fatty acids, and alcohols. The time of harvest determines the composition of volatiles [ 38 ].
Chinese berries contain larger amounts of ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, butyl pentanoate, 2-methylpropyl 3-methylbutanoate, and pentyl 3-methylbutanoate than the Finnish species, which are rich in ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, and ethyl hexanoate [ 56 , 63 ]. In a study by Hirvi and Honkanen [ 64 ], 60 volatile compounds were identified using combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
The compounds found in the largest quantities were ethyl hexanoate, 3-methylbutyl 3-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutanoic acid, 3-methylbutyl hexanoate, 3-methylbutyl benzoate, and 3-methylbutyl octanoate. Terpenes and aromatic compounds were found in trace amounts. Cakir, also using combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, identified 30 compounds in sea buckthorn volatile oil. The major components were ethyl dodecanoate Sea buckthorn has been known for its medicinal properties for centuries.
Today, it is gaining more attention due to its high nutritional value and wide spectrum of bioactive compounds, which participate in numerous healing processes Table 2 Figure 3. The health benefits of the berries include anti-inflammatory effects, antimicrobial action, pain relief, promotion of tissue regeneration, and boosting of the immune system, as well as protection against cancer and cardiovascular disease.
Sea buckthorn has found application in many medical preparations, aimed at treating cancer, heart ailments, ulcers, hepatic disorders, burns, and brain disorders [ 66 ]. Structures of the most relevant phytochemicals with present in sea buckthorn with medicinal value A —quercetin, B —isorhamnetin, C —catechin, D —gallocatechin, E —epigallocatechin, F —ursolic acid [ 72 , 73 , 74 , 75 , 76 , 77 ].
The antioxidant activity of sea buckthorn fruit extracts can be attributed to their ability to capture free radicals. Alcoholic extract of dried sea buckthorn berries has been found to be a more effective antioxidant than the standard antioxidants 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-hydroxytoluene BHT and tert-butyl-hydroxyanisole BHA [ 78 ].
In a study by Varshneya et al. Alcoholic fruit extract of sea buckthorn showed significant cytoprotection against sodium nitroprusside-induced oxidative stress in lymphocytes [ 80 ]. The antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties of sea buckthorn have been studied in vitro using rat splenocytes, macrophages, and the C-6 glioma cell line, as well as in vivo using male albino rats.
The leaf extract also has the ability to protect glial cells against hypoxia-induced oxidative damage [ 83 ]. Flavonoids are polyphenols that occur naturally in fruits and vegetables, including sea buckthorn. The most abundant flavonoids in sea buckthorn fruit and leaves are isorhamnetin and quercetin [ 22 ]. The antioxidant properties of flavanols have been reported to lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Total sea buckthorn flavonoids show protective effects against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, tumors, oxidative injury, and aging [ 84 ].
Flavonoids from sea buckthorn protect endothelial cells from oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced injuries [ 85 ]. Hypertensive stroke-prone rats fed ad libitum with 0. In a study by Pang and others [ 87 ], rats were administered with food high in sucrose, which significantly increased their systolic blood pressure, as well as the levels of insulin and triglycerides in their plasma, and the amount of angiotensin II in their heart and kidneys.
The experimental group was then given a diet enriched with sea buckthorn seed extract. The results showed antihypertensive action by blocking the angiotensin II pathway and improving sensitivity to insulin. Similarly, rabbits on a high cholesterol diet given 1 mL of sea buckthorn seed oil per day for 30 days had reduced LDL, a lower atherogenic index and showed increased HDL and vasorelaxant activity [ 88 ].
In a study by Johansson et al. Their levels of phospholipid fatty acids, plasma lipids, and glucose were unaffected. Blood clotting is considered one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. A possible mechanism of action of probiotics is due to the inhibition of hepatic lipogenesis and in the same time decreasing the glucose level in blood and insulinemia [ 90 , 91 , 92 ]. Resveratrol together with quercetin have been connected with enhancement of physiological functionality of Lactobacillus strains.
These improvements depend on the type and concentration of the compound used as well as the bacteria strain. Quercetin showed better protective effects than resveratrol and among the tested strains, the best results were obtained for L. Diabetes is a metabolic disorder of the endocrine system. It prevents patients from being able to properly produce and use insulin in the body, resulting in high content of blood glucose [ 93 ]. Numerous researchers have examined the potential of sea buckthorn to aid in the treatment of diabetes.
Zhang and others [ 94 ] investigated the effects of an aqueous extract of sea buckthorn seed residues on serum glucose, lipid profiles, and antioxidant parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The extract significantly lowered the levels of serum glucose, triglyceride, and nitric oxide in the diabetic rats. Moreover, there were noticeable increases in serum superoxide dismutase activity and levels of glutathione.
This demonstrates the potential hypoglycemic, hypotriglyceridemic, and antioxidant effects of sea buckthorn supplements, suggesting that sea buckthorn could be useful for preventing diabetic complications associated with hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress.
Kim et al. The positive effects of sea buckthorn can be enhanced by their combination with other berries. An improvement in blood sugar and lipid levels was reported in children with type I diabetes who were fed blueberry and sea buckthorn concentrate formulae. This improvement might be due to the combined beneficial effects of the berries. Combinations of these two species could also be effective at preventing cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and related complications [ 96 ].
In another study focusing on the combined effects of sea buckthorn and blueberry concentrate, 30 type I diabetic children were given two-berry concentrates as dietary supplements. The results showed a significant decrease in glycated hemoglobin and an increase in the concentration of C peptides [ 97 ]. Again, not only polyphenols themselves, but also their bioavailability matters in the natural treatment for type 2 diabetes. The issue is tightly correlated with the way polyphenols influence the gut microbiota.
It depends on their chemical structure, the matrix they might be a part of, a dosage that is introduced into the system or the type of diet [ 92 ]. Polyphenol-rich extracts that have been proven effective in lowering the blood glucose levels have also been shown to affect the gut microbiota [ 98 ].
Their synergistic effect resulted in the reduction of Firmicutes abundance, the downstream of Clostridiales and Lachnospiraceae , and a high concentration of butyrate. A study by Roopchand and others [ 99 ] showed that dietary polyphenols lowered intestinal expression of inflammatory markers and a gene for glucose absorption Glut2 as well as modified the structure of gut microflora in mice by increasing the growth of Akkermansia muciniphila in the same time decreasing the proportion of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes.
The antitumor activity of extract of sea buckthorn has been demonstrated using an initiator 7,dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and a promoter O-tetradecanoylphorbolacetate TPA of carcinogenesis in mice. Three phenolic compounds catechin, gallocatechin, and epigallocatechin and a triterpenoid ursolic acid isolated from sea buckthorn were shown to prevent TPA-induced inflammation [ ].
The cytotoxic effects of sea buckthorn flavonoids have also been studied in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells BE [ ]. Cytotoxic action was observed, caused by the accumulation of isorhamnetin in cells. After 48 h of treatment, the BE tumor cells exhibited isorhamnetin-induced chromatin condensation and fragmentation, indicating that the sea buckthorn extract exerted antitumor and growth inhibitory effects on the tumor cells.
Kim and others [ ] examined whether sea buckthorn leaf extract inhibited proliferation and promoted apoptosis in rat glioma C6 cells. Treatment with sea buckthorn leaf extract inhibited the proliferation of rat C6 glioma cells in a dose-dependent manner and decreased production of reactive oxygen species, which are critical for the proliferation of tumor cells.
Sea buckthorn treatment not only upregulated the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bclassociated X Bax significantly, but also promoted its localization in the nucleus. A study by Nersesyan and Muradyan [ ] investigated the influence of sea buckthorn juice on micronucleus frequency in bone marrow cells and sperm abnormality induced by cisplatin. At a dose of 1. Sea buckthorn has been investigated for its ability to treat diseases of the gastrointestinal tract [ ].
Groups of rats with induced gastric ulcers were subjected to pre-trial oral administration of CO 2 -extracted seed and pulp oil. Both the protective and curative effects of the sea buckthorn oils were studied. Sea buckthorn oil intake accelerated the healing process of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers. In other research on rats, ulcers induced in the same way were treated with procyanidins extracted from the sea buckthorn oil [ ].
Reductions in the sizes of the ulcers were noticed on days 7 and 14 in a dose-dependent manner. This suggests that the procyanidins in sea buckthorn play an important role in healing acetic acid-induced gastric lesions, possibly by accelerating mucosal repair. A study by Suleyman and others [ ] examined stress- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Sea buckthorn supplementation significantly reduced the size of the induced ulcers, and in some cases only hyperemia or even no ulcer was found.
A crucial component of the gastrointestinal tract is its natural microflora. The effect of sea buckthorn on beneficial bacteria was taken under investigation. Another mechanism resulting in lowering blood cholesterol by sea buckthorn seed oil is possibly mediated by stimulation of the growth of microbiota that produces short-chain fatty acids. The results showed an increase in the abundance of the short-chain fatty acids-generating Bacteroidales S group and decrease in Ruminococcaceae.
Attri and Goel [ ] focused on the effect of polyphenol rich sea buckthorn berries juice on colonic microbial composition and diversity using in vitro simulated gut model. Higher content of resveratrol, rutin, and chlorogenic acid were observed in ascending colon, whereas quercetin, ferulic, and caffeic acid levels were higher in the descending colon due to biotransformation of polyphenols in the later part of the colon.
Another study by Yuan [ ] investigated the effect of sea buckthorn protein on intestinal microbial community in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. It was found that sea buckthorn protein can increase the number of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Bacteroides and reduce the number of Clostridium coccoides.
Previous research stated that Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Bacteroides act as beneficial bacteria that can positively affect the immune system of the host by promotion of macrophage activity, enhancement of B and T lymphocytes to increase the reactivity of the antigen, stimulation of the thymus, spleen, and other immune organs [ , ]. Apart from positive effects on gut microflora, sea buckthorn protein served in the form of a natural food additive might be beneficial in a therapeutic diet for diabetic patients.
Sea buckthorn has traditionally been used to aid skin regeneration, and has also found applications in modern medicine. Sea buckthorn fruit and seed oil contains high levels of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids omega-3,6,7 , natural antioxidants, vitamins E, K , carotenoids, and phytosterols [ 26 ]. All of these chemicals combine to protect cell membranes and enhance cell regeneration. Palmitoleic acid is a component of skin used in burn treatment and wound healing.
Sea buckthorn oil has been reported to have preventive and curative effects against different types of gastric ulcers, chronic cervicitis, and atopic dermatitis [ , ]. Edraki and others [ ] treated burns on rats with sea buckthorn oil and olive oil, separately and as a mixture. Both the sea buckthorn and the olive oil were effective dressings for burn wounds; but together they showed a synergetic effect.
Sea buckthorn oil has been tested for its potential to ease the symptoms of menopause, such as vaginal atrophy and the thinning and drying of vaginal mucosa. It is suitable for women who cannot tolerate estrogen treatment. In one study, over 90 women were given sea buckthorn oil supplements, administered orally [ ]. After three months, the women showed improved vaginal health, including significantly better integrity of the vaginal epithelium. Treatment with sea buckthorn oil can therefore offer an alternative for estrogen therapy for vaginal atrophy.
Given the known positive effects of sea buckthorn oil on skin and mucous membranes, researchers have investigated its possible effects on dry eye syndrome. A group of men and women with dry eye syndrome were given sea buckthorn oil, administered orally, over a period of three months in autumn and winter. The sea buckthorn oil attenuated the increase in tear film osmolarity during the cold season and positively affected dry-eye symptoms [ ].
Alcoholic sea buckthorn leaf extract was shown to upregulate the antigen presentation of macrophages in aged mice, with immune-boosting and anti-aging effects [ ]. Sea buckthorn possesses antiviral and antimicrobial properties. Chaman and others [ ] used the hole-plate diffusion method to test the antibacterial potential of sea buckthorn berry extracts.
Smida and others [ ] designed a mouthwash based on sea buckthorn pulp oil, which they compared with two commercially available mouthwash products and evaluated against Streptococcus gordonii, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinomyces viscosus , and Candida albicans. The experimental preparation was bactericidal against S. Irrespective of the tested strains, complete inhibition of biofilm formation was achieved.
Sea buckthorn also exhibits an antiviral response to Dengue virus infection. Dengue fever is a serious condition with no direct treatment. The extract was equally effective at maintaining the cell viability of Dengue-infected cells as Ribavirin, suggesting that H. Other studies have investigated the antimicrobial properties of H. This points towards possible applications of sea buckthorn in the food industry, as an additive and for the development of useful natural compounds [ ].
Sea buckthorn is already applied in numerous food products. The most popular products prepared from sea buckthorn are juices, jams, wines, pies, and liquors. Due to their high acidity, the fruits can be used to make refreshing drinks, while the leaves are used in teas [ 26 , ]. Despite broad beneficial health effects sea buckthorn fruit might be unpleasant to eat raw, due to the high acidity and astringency.
Studies focus on different compounds that are responsible for unpleasant taste of the berry. Malic and quinic acids are the main representatives among organic acids in sea buckthorn fruit which contribute to pungency. To avoid that, some producers use malolactic acid fermentation, a traditional technique used in winemaking, to lower its content by converting it to milder lactic acid [ ].
Ratios between contents of various compounds impact astringency and bitterness more significantly than the amounts of individual variables, such as proanthocyanidin dimers and trimers or quercetin glycosides, which are known for heightening perception of astringent taste [ ]. Sea buckthorn has been supplied to Russian cosmonauts. In the Seoul Olympics in , sea buckthorn squash was the official health drink of the Chinese athletes [ ]. The rich spectrum of bioactive compounds found in sea buckthorn has inspired researchers to investigate the application of its various parts and extracts in food.
Terpou and others [ ] combined the nutritional properties of H. Feta cheese was used as a carrier of L. The result was a product with improved physicochemical properties, an aroma enriched with terpenes and carbonyl compounds, and with a higher probiotic cell population. The same bacteria strain was used to fortify frozen yoghurt, with sea buckthorn berries as the immobilization carrier.
Sea buckthorn berries, in addition to providing microbiological safety, imparted exceptional sensory features [ ]. Lactose intolerant consumers have limited access to probiotic products. Maftei and others [ 39 ] developed a soy drink with sea buckthorn syrup, fermented by probiotic L. The meat industry is currently looking for natural additives to replace artificial supplements. In one study, sea buckthorn berry powder and brews were incorporated as ingredients in pork sausages.
Fortification with sea buckthorn berry powder strongly inhibited lipid oxidation during storage, prolonging shelf life [ ]. Sea buckthorn has also been applied in alcoholic beverages. Sea buckthorn wine has been found to exert a protective effect in mice against phorone-induced oxidative stress and hypercholesterolemia induced by a high-cholesterol diet [ ].
Reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation and increased superoxide dismutase activity were also observed. The results of high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis showed that the wine contained high levels of rutin, myricetin, and quercetin compared with commercially available Cabernet Shiraz wine. In another study, Wang and others [ ] identified the volatile compounds in sweet and dry sea buckthorn wine, raw juice, and fermented must, which contained 53, 48, 37, and 38 compounds, respectively.
These compounds contributed to the specific taste of the sea buckthorn wine. Sea buckthorn beer has also been the focus of research. In one study, fruit mash was added after four weeks of fermentation to green beer, resulting in good technological parameters. In total, 32 volatile substances were identified, enriching the flavor and aroma. Higher antiradical DPPH activity was observed compared to the control [ ].
Sea buckthorn is a rich source of many active substances with health promoting properties. This wide spectrum of bioactive compounds can help prevent or treat a range of conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, tumors, gastrointestinal disorders, and skin problems. Sea buckthorn is therefore an excellent supplement with which to enrich the daily diet, helping to prevent diseases of affluence. Moreover, sea buckthorn shows synergetic effects when combined with other plants with pro-health properties.
The antimicrobial and antiviral properties of sea buckthorn make it suitable for use in the production of pharmaceuticals targeted against specific strains of microorganisms. Due to its antioxidant properties and high nutritional value, sea buckthorn has already found numerous applications in foods, beverages, supplements, and medicines, and many more potential uses are being investigated.
Antioxidants Basel. Published online Aug Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Jul 1; Accepted Aug This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Growing demand for value-added products and functional foods is encouraging manufacturers to consider new additives that can enrich their products and help combat lifestyle diseases.
Keywords: sea buckthorn, natural antioxidants, bioactive compounds, functional food, nutraceuticals. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Sea Buckthorn Fruit Female sea buckthorn plants produce berries that are yellow, orange, or red when ripe. Vitamins The most characteristic feature of sea buckthorn berries is their exceedingly high content of vitamin C.
Amino Acids Sea buckthorn berries contain 18 of the 22 known amino acids Table 1. Table 1 Amino acids found in sea buckthorn according to [ 51 ]. Organic Acids The two main organic acids found in sea buckthorn fruits are malic and quinic acids. Mineral Elements The mineral elements that enrich the composition of sea buckthorn fruit include iron, magnesium, copper, zinc, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, nitrogen, and manganese [ 57 , 58 ].
Sugars Glucose, fructose, and xylose are the three main sugars present in sea buckthorn berries. Volatile Compounds Sea buckthorn berries possess a unique aroma, due to their content of volatile compounds. Medicinal Value Sea buckthorn has been known for its medicinal properties for centuries.
Table 2 Major phytochemicals in sea buckthorn and their medicinal properties. Figure 3. Mineral Elements The antioxidant activity of sea buckthorn fruit extracts can be attributed to their ability to capture free radicals. Cardiovascular Diseases Flavonoids are polyphenols that occur naturally in fruits and vegetables, including sea buckthorn.
Diabetes Diabetes is a metabolic disorder of the endocrine system. Antitumor Effect The antitumor activity of extract of sea buckthorn has been demonstrated using an initiator 7,dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and a promoter O-tetradecanoylphorbolacetate TPA of carcinogenesis in mice. Gastrointestinal Effect Sea buckthorn has been investigated for its ability to treat diseases of the gastrointestinal tract [ ]. Wound Healing Sea buckthorn has traditionally been used to aid skin regeneration, and has also found applications in modern medicine.
Antimicrobial and Antiviral Properties Sea buckthorn possesses antiviral and antimicrobial properties. Food Applications Sea buckthorn is already applied in numerous food products. Conclusions Sea buckthorn is a rich source of many active substances with health promoting properties. Funding This research received no external funding. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest.
References 1. Enescu C. Sea-buckthorn: A species with a variety of uses, especially in land reclamation. Walczak-Zeidler K. Wydawnictwo Cursiva; Kostrzyn, Poland: Kallio H. Food Chem. Yang B. Trends Food Sci. Wang R. Rhythms of volatile release from female and male sea buckthorn plants and electrophysiological response of sea buckthorn carpenter moths. Plant Interact. Harvesting technologies for sea buckthorn fruit.
Tian C. Genetic diversity of sea buckthorn Hippophae rhamnoides populations in northeastern and northwestern China as revealed by ISSR markers. New For. Bartish I. Korekar G. Sea Buckthorn Hippophae rhamnoides L. Yue X. Phytochemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oils from different parts of sea buckthorn Hippophae rhamnoides L.
Food Drug Anal. Ranjith A. Fatty acids, tocols, and carotenoids in pulp oil of three sea buckthorn species Hippophae rhamnoides , H. Oil Chem. Vincze I. Concentration of sea buckthorn Hippophae rhamnoides L. Sharma U. Gupta S. Don Plant. Plant Pathol. Chandra S. Pharmacological and nutritional importance of sea buckthorn Hippophae Pharma Innov.
Zheng L. LWT Food Sci. Hao W. Sea buckthorn seed oil reduces blood cholesterol and modulates gut microbiota. Food Funct. Tudor C. Sea buckthorn oil as a valuable source of bioaccessible xanthophylls. Pop E. Hertog M. Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: The Zutphen Elderly Study. Guo R. Functional Foods, Biochemical and Processing Aspects.
Physiological components and health effects of ginseng, echinacea and seabuckthorn; pp. Beveridge T. Sea buckthorn products: Manufacture and composition. Selvamuthukumaran M. Processing seabuckthorn fruit for antioxidant rich jam development and shelf stability assessment.
Indian J. Development of sea buckthorn mixed fruit jelly. Food Sci. Biswas A. Sea buckthorn: New feed opportunity for poultry in cold arid Ladakh region of India. Taxonomy, natural distribution and botany; pp. Indian Summer. Oomah B. Sea buckthorn lipids; pp.
Berries of Different Origins. Zadernowski R. Sea-Bucktorn Lipids. Food Lipids. Maftei N. New fermented functional product based on soy milk and sea buckthorn syrup. CyTA J. Since sea buckthorn oil is often polluted, you should pay attention to organic certification. Cosmetic properties:. Sea buckthorn seed oil Hippophae rhamnoides Seabuckthorn Seed Oil In contrast to the sea buckthorn oil, the sea buckthorn seed oil is on a different fatty acid spectrum.
Since both oils are sometimes offered in the trade as "sea buckthorn oil," you can not say exactly whether the respective oil from the pulp or the seed was pressed or both. The sea buckthorn seed oil has a strong healing property Epithelialising , is moisture-binding and has a healing effect on the skin. It is ideal for the care of flaky, dry skin. It is also well suited for allergic skin reactions and impure skin, Cosmetic properties:. CO2 emissions are foregone where possible.
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Hippophae Rhamnoides Oil, Hippophae Rhamnoides Fruit Oil This oil is. Hippophae rhamnoides (seaberry) fruit extract is a good source of vitamins B, C and E. Learn more at freefloo.com HIPPOPHAE RHAMNOIDES (SEA BUCKTHORN) FRUIT EXTRACT · Other Concerns · Functions · About the Chemical · Synonyms · not reported, masking, and skin conditioning.