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Returns Accepted. Authorized Seller. Completed Items. Sold Items. Authenticity Guarantee. More filters Condition Any Condition. Gallery View Customize. ER stress. Figure 3 Autophagy regulation in response to stress. Activation of eIF2? Oxidative stress. Pathogen Infection. Figure 4 Different mechanisms that regulate autophagy by pathogen invasion. Transcriptional and Epigenetic Regulation of Autophagy.
Figure 3a. Chromosome Modification. Post-Translational Regulation of the Autophagy Machinery. Concluding Remarks. Substantial progress has been made in the past few years in understanding the molecular mechanism and regulatory network of autophagy from yeast to mammals. As a major cellular catabolic system targeting a variety of substrates, the autophagic process needs to be tightly controlled.
The coordination of Atg proteins with other subcellular components, including the cytoskeleton, the secretory pathway, oncogenes and tumor suppressors, and immunoproteins, is crucial for correct autophagy induction. Both canonical such as the insulin and growth factor pathway and novel signaling cascades have been implicated in regulating autophagy, in response to different intra- or extracellular stimuli.
Current knowledge and further investigation on the genetic regulation of autophagy will provide a broad spectrum of potential pharmacological targets for modulating autophagy in various disease conditions. Summary Points. Autophagy mediates the lysosomal degradation of cytosolic proteins, damaged or excess organelles, protein aggregates, and invasive microbes.
Autophagy can nonselectively degrade bulk cytosol or selectively target specific cargos through receptor and adaptor proteins. Autophagy-related ATG gene products cooperatively function at multiple steps to facilitate the formation of a double-membrane autophagosome. Various stress conditions stimulate induction of autophagy, and the signal transduction mechanisms of autophagy are being identified.
Not much is known about transcriptional regulation of autophagy genes, yet several transcription factors have been suggested to activate or suppress expression of certain ATG genes in yeast, Drosophila, and mammalian tissues. Autophagy proteins undergo phosphorylation and acetylation modifications that modulate autophagy activity.
Future Issues. Crosstalk between signaling pathways that act in controlling autophagy needs to be further explored, and detailed studies on a potential convergent molecule of several upstream pathways, such as the link between TOR downregulation and autophagy induction, should be carried out. Characterization of Atg1 kinase substrates and new components in the Atg1 complex in both yeast and higher eukaryotes will provide useful information on the exact functions this important kinase carries out during autophagy.
How substrate specificity is achieved by selective autophagic degradation in various circumstances, for example, cell cycle progression, cell division, development, differentiation, and diseases, deserves extensive investigation. It should be noted that homologs of many ATG genes required for selective autophagy in yeast, such as Atg11, have not been identified in higher eukaryotes.
Thus, it is likely that they may share functional and structural similarities but not sequence homology. Future studies on the mechanistic aspects of autophagosome formation can be performed either in vivo or in vitro. For instance, it will be important to determine how small GTPases and SNARE proteins may collaborate with the autophagy machinery during phagophore assembly, if any of them are involved, and what regulates dissociation of various Atg proteins from a completed autophagosome.
Buy it with · This item: 3M Scotch ATG Tape: 1/2 in. x 36 yds. (Clear Adhesive on Tan Liner). $ · Logan Dust Cover Trimmer. $ In Stock. Sold by. ATG is a 2 mil (mm) glass stabilized acrylic adhesive transfer tape with gold siliconized paper liner reverse wound on a 1" plastic core. 1/2" x 60 yds * Acid Free Adhesive * Adhesive non-aging, will not yellow * Neutral pH * Smooth roll on - fits in 3M's ATG Gun.