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Guiteau , a disappointed office-seeker, assassinated him. To prevent further political violence and to assuage public outrage, Congress passed the Pendleton Act in , which set up the Civil Service Commission. Henceforth, applicants for most federal government jobs would have to pass an examination. Federal politicians' influence over bureaucratic appointments waned, and patronage declined as a national political issue.
Shakman v. Democratic Organization of Cook County , occurred involving political patronage and its constitutionality. Shakman claimed that much of the patronage going on in Chicago politics was unlawful on the grounds of the first and fourteenth amendments. Through a series of legal battles and negotiations, the two parties agreed upon The Shakman Decrees.
Under these decrees, it was declared that the employment status of most public employees could not be affected positively or negatively based on political allegiance, with exceptions for politically inclined positions.
The case is still in negotiation today, as there are points yet to be decided. Political patronage is not always considered corrupt. In the United States, the U. Constitution provides the president with the power to appoint individuals to government positions. He or she also may appoint personal advisers without congressional approval. Not surprisingly, these individuals tend to be supporters of the president. Similarly, at the state and local levels, governors and mayors retain appointments powers.
Some scholars have argued that patronage may be used for laudable purposes, such as the "recognition" of minority communities through the appointment of their members to a high-profile position. Bearfield has argued that patronage be used for four general purposes: create or strengthen a political organization; achieve democratic or egalitarian goals; bridge political divisions and create coalitions, and to alter the existing patronage system.
Many Barmakids were patrons of the sciences, which greatly helped the propagation of Indian science and scholarship from the neighboring Academy of Gundishapur into the Arabic world. They patronized scholars such as Jabir ibn Hayyan and Jabril ibn Bukhtishu. They are also credited with the establishment of the first paper mill in Baghdad.
The power of the Barmakids in those times is reflected in The Book of One Thousand and One Nights ; the vizier Ja'far appears in several stories, as well as a tale that gave rise to the expression "Barmecide feast". We know of Yahya b Khalid al Barmaki as a patron of physicians and, specifically, of the translation of Hindu medical works into both Arabic and Persian.
In all likelihood, however, his activity took place in the orbit of the caliphal court in Iraq, where at the behest of Harun al Rashid , such books were translated into Arabic. Thus Khurasan and Transoxania were effectively bypassed in this transfer of learning from India to Islam, even though, undeniably the Barmakis cultural outlook owed something to their land of origin, northern Afghanistan, and Yahya al Barmaki's interest in medicine may have derived from no longer identifiable family tradition.
In the same manner as commercial patronage, those who attend a sporting event may be referred to as patrons, though the usage in much of the world is now considered archaic—with some notable exceptions. Those who attend the Masters Tournament , one of the four major championships of professional golf , are still traditionally referred to as "patrons," largely at the insistence of the Augusta National Golf Club. This insistence is occasionally made fun of by sportswriters and other media.
The rest of the team may be amateurs, often including the patron himself or, increasingly, herself. Also, people who attend hurling or Gaelic football games organised by the Gaelic Athletic Association are referred to as patrons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Support that one organization or individual bestows to another. For other uses, see Patron disambiguation and Patronage disambiguation. Main articles: ius patronatus , Cardinal nephew , and patronage festivity.
Further information: Political machine , Pork barrel , and No-bid contract. Main article: Spoils system. Sociologische Gids. Mepple, Belgium: J. Boom en Zoon. ISSN OCLC S2CID Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved 10 September The Journal of Peasant Studies. Labor Systems". ISBN Kent et al. New York: Robert Appleton Company, Silicon Valley Watcher. March Daily Maverick. Boss Tweed. Gotham Gazette.
New York. Archived from the original on Encyclopedia of Chicago. Cook FP Shakman. January—February A Critical Reexamination". Public Administration Review. Retrieved Archived from the original on November 25, Retrieved 16 August Bloomberg Business. Retrieved 16 April While the fideussione is a direct binding guarantee from the guarantor, the letter of patronage can be different case by case and can create a different kind of obligation from the issuing party.
When reading such a kind of guarantee, you should carefully check what the content of the guarantee is:. The above classification is certainly not definitive and various Court decisions have modified and commented upon the various kind of letter of patronage. Thus, the information obligations have to some extent been given, especially by commentators, more of a contractual nature. There is, however, a general consensus that, normally speaking, a letter of patronage would not amount to a " fidejussione ", the only pure guarantee existing under Italian law.
The contract of " fidejussione " is a contract whereby the party giving the " fidejussione " is obligated to perform the obligations guaranteed if the beneficiary does not perform. However, a " fidejussione " must satisfy certain requirements of law which, generally speaking, are excluded in the case of a patronage undertaking. This is because: " The intention to give a "fidejussione" must be express and, although no particular formulas are required, such intention must show itself in an unequivocal manner, in a way which shows clearly the guarantee agreement.
Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances. Topics: International Commerce. Written by Giuseppe Broccoli. When reading such a kind of guarantee, you should carefully check what the content of the guarantee is: Information , i. It is generally considered that the failure to conform to the terms of such letter exposes the issuer to the risk of extra contractual liabilities.
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A letter of patronage can be considered either as a mere declaration of courtesy to looking at them, on the one hand, as binding guarantees ("fidejussione"). Business Letter for Patronage: This letter should be typed in the official letter-head of the company. The Company's Name. Door Number and Street's Name. They consist of statements, usually written in epistolary form, issued by the so-called “patronnant” (generally an holding or a parent company).